Friday, August 28, 2020
Questions: 1.Explain how your outcomes Influence your arranging choices for the review for the year finishing 30 June 2015. 2.Explain why it is a hazard and how it might influence the danger of Material Misstatement in the Financial Report. 3.Identify and Explain two key Fraud Risk Factors identifying with Misstatements emerging from Fraudulent Financial Reporting to which DIPL might be vulnerable. Answers: 1.Substantive logical techniques are extremely useful in attestation of the straightforwardness of the records and the other review methodology that may have been applied in keeping up the books of record, and arrangement of the budget reports. If there should arise an occurrence of DIPL, the organization has been occupied with the matter of printing from quite a while, and we have been furnished with most recent three years books of record to make our declaration on the straightforwardness of the arrangement of the organization. Explanatory techniques will incorporate correlation of the monetary information with earlier year information, the spending plan arranged by the organization, and other industry conjectures and situations. We can do likewise by directing proportion investigation, pattern examination, concentrating of the money related information from the companys past record. In the data gave by the DIPL fiscal summaries, we will lead our examination and correlation, and af terward choose whether the current circumstance of the organization is preferred in monetary terms over earlier years. On the off chance that passing by the business patterns we see that the organization isn't in a superior situation in contrast with the business norms, we will at that point apply conceivable considerable strategies to discover the explanation of the equivalent. We will check whether compelling inner control is kept up by the organization. On the off chance that the genuine outcomes and the standard outcomes differ a great deal, at that point further strategies should be embraced. As an examiner, advise the administration about the equivalent, and attempt to acquire further more data from the administration that may help in further analysis.(Grenier 2017) There can be different purposes for such deviations and the fundamental work of the review group is to determine the primary motivation behind why the organization is veering off from the set norms. In the given explanations we see that the organization is showing improvement over each earlier year, the benefit has expanded and furthermore there is a consistent development in the money related of the organization. This implies the companys inside control is solid, the administration has applied persistence in directing their work and accordingly the evaluator doesn't have to apply further strategies. The business information are not accessible; subsequently the pattern investigation is impossible. In the event that there is a deviation with the mechanical principles, at that point further expository and meaningful techniques should be applied. In any case, as expressed in the archive that in the current year, the organization has taken an advance of 7.5 million, which requires the or ganization to keep up specific proportions, inability to do so would prompt review of the credit. So as an inspector, that must be checked and confirmed whether the credits are taken on appropriate standing and how is it influencing the money related of the company(Knechel Salterio 2016). 2.The two kinds of hazard factors that are available in the administration of the organization and that may prompt material misquote are that, a solitary individual is approved to download the receipts, check the installments and approve the exchange. This causes a danger of material misquote, in light of the fact that as far as significant systems, isolation of obligations is significant. In addition the records receivable are gotten with a money order by means of mail and that is likewise a very hazard circumstance as there are odds of data being spilled and hacked. Furthermore, as expressed in the organization explanations, Judy Bones is given all the obligation of downloading the receipts from the mail, sending the sum, and furthermore accommodating the all out group installments and the record receivables. Subsequently there is no isolation of obligation. The other sort of hazard is the one related with the enhanced IT framework, in which establishment happened under outrageous tension with no appropriate checks and furthermore we see that there are no staffs to do legitimate compromise, before the upgraded IT framework was live. Accordingly the new framework was introduced without appropriate confirmation and that may prompt material misquote and other intrinsic dangers are related with the equivalent, as the administration has neglected to learn legitimate inside control. Different dangers are included, in changing of the technique for bookkeeping and bookkeeping approaches a seemingly endless amount of time after year and that may frequently force confinements on the inspector to lead legitimate audit(DeZoort Harrison 2016). 3.The two focuses in the explanations that shows that misrepresentation may have happened is that one there is no isolation of significant obligations in the organization. The agent is given significant obligations of planning of the receipt and recording of the equivalent, at that point Gay the records receivable representative does all the significant work of checking the exactness, confirming the installment , compromise of the books of record and furthermore entering the equivalent into his record explanations. The equivalent is if there should arise an occurrence of e receipts of record receivable, where the installment is gathered by a solitary clerk, who downloads the receipts, checks the installments and moves it. And furthermore does the important compromise on her part. Consequently we see that there is no isolation of obligation and that may regularly prompt misrepresentation. The other point is the fundamental related with the enhanced IT framework, where superfluous weig ht was applied by the chiefs to introduce the equivalent without legitimate compromise and checking, along these lines there may be odds of extortion on part of the management(Fay Negangard 2017). The hazard factors that are recognized above, may influence the review from various perspectives, in such a case that there is no inward control, the examiner needs to play out a few different techniques and that may build the complexities. Besides if there is no legitimate data given it might prompt unfriendly feelings in the review report. The dangers may be with the end goal that they are not effectively recognizable during the time spent review in light of the fact that numerous a period, just a single individual is performing significant obligations. So there might be issues in cross checking and acquiring concealed data. In every one of these ways the inspector will confront trouble if the dangers are involved(Raiborn, Butler Martin 2016). References DeZoort, FT Harrison, PD 2016, 'Understanding Auditors awareness of other's expectations for recognizing misrepresentation inside association', Journal of Business Ethics, pp. 1-18. Fay, R Negangard, EM 2017, 'Manual diary section testing : Data investigation and the danger of extortion', Journal of Accounting Education, vol 38, pp. 37-49. Grenier, J 2017, 'Empowering Professional Skepticism in the Industry Specialization Era', Journal of Business Ethics, vol 142, no. 2, pp. 241-256. Knechel, WB Salterio, SE 2016, Auditing:Assurance and Risk, fourth edn, Routledge, New York. Raiborn, C, Butler, JB Martin, K 2016, 'The inner review work: An essential for Good Governance', Journal of Corporate Accounting and Finance, vol 28, no. 2, pp. 10-21
Saturday, August 22, 2020
By what means will proficient associations assume a job in your expert life - Assignment Example All the more remarkable processors are utilized in the cell phones, cameras to process the different kinds of signs, playing of mixed media. We believe that ice chests, gas cooker, iron, and so forth gadgets will have a lot of created chip to process different undertakings. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s want to make all procedures naturally done, power individuals to utilize different processors-coordinated gadgets, for example, processor in the microwave can conclude how to warm items, and later on processors will consequently cook dishes, nearly without the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mediation. We should underline that proficient associations help their individuals in securing their positions, or extend to them employment opportunity postings and they help individuals to secure their position. What's more, I imagine that in my expert life it will be the beginning of my vocation. We realize that after the examination procedure we need more understanding to introduce great job and expert association can help with tutoring.. What's more, it tends to be considered as the foundation of our expert life, as expert association can give the specialist capacity to pick up understanding from other much experienced laborers from a similar field. Proficient association can likewise offer proficient advancement through the courses, distributions, workshops, and they can have some unique data accessible just for site individuals (Anderson, 2012). They can send vital data to the laborer to realize new industry inclines, and will help in managing them. We can likewise underline exceptional yearly gatherings pointed on the systems administration. This is a decent chance to blend in with others laborers who for long time work in field. In addition, such gatherings can be an occupation reasonable, where one can make contacts with the future chief (Anderson, 2012). Anderson, L. (n.d.). 5 Reasons Professional Organizations are Worth Joining. Recovered February 23, 2015, from
Friday, August 21, 2020
Habit - Term Paper Example They had higher types of commitment typically also, when they were progressively included. By and large, when one is discussing habit it alludes to a restricted arrangement of points of interest that characterize the fixation, yet the possibility of the addictive character is to see who might be inclined to be dependent on different exercises. Katz calls attention to how dependence is likewise progressively acknowledged and endured in the public eye with the goal that numerous exercises and things which may have not been viewed as addictive before, for example, nourishment, exercise, work, and connections, are presently additionally acknowledged progressively as substantial addictions. Numerous specialists as indicated by Katz attempt to limit the meaning of an addictive character, along these lines, by partitioning addictive conduct into five theoretical classifications: designs, propensities, impulses, motivation control issue, and physical addictions (the individual can't live wit hout it) (2005). KatzÃ¢â¬â¢s article gives a general gander at dependence, without going a lot into points of interest. BenshoffÃ¢â¬â¢s article bargains less for the most part with the subject of enslavement than Katz, and spotlights on the number of inhabitants in old addicts. The older structure social bonds that depend on their connection to society from a mental viewpoint just as a point of view of common social procedures in which getting distanced from others and human culture supposedly encourages foolish conduct, for example, substance misuse. Benshoff shows how these social bonds are framed right off the bat in people and can be applied to life expectancy forms including the older who are associated with bonds with society that require different levels, or individual absences of, connection to, pledge to, inclusion in, and confidence in cultural codes or regularizing impacts. As the creator brings up, on account of the older, this bearing for the most part works as far as the presentÃ¢â¬â¢s offset with the future: freak conduct, for example, tranquilize misuse damages the
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
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Friday, May 15, 2020
Specific Purpose: At the end of my speech, the audience will understand what insomnia is, what the symptoms and causes are, and how it is diagnosed and treated. Preview of Main Points: I will briefly describe what insomnia is and how it is caused along with how it is diagnosed and treated. Introduction (Attention Getter) 45 percent of college students will dropout within the first 2 years due to poor academic performance. This is according to Stinebrickner of Berea College and University of Western Ontario and Stinebrickner of University of Western Ontario in their article Academic Performance and College Dropout: Using Longitudinal Expectations Data to Estimate a Learning Model in the Journal of Labor Economics from 2014. (Introduce TopicÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦C. The Symptoms for both are about the same but will vary on severity based on how long the person has struggled. 1. Some of the less serious symptoms can be frustration, fatigue, problems with paying attention, concentrating, and memory, or being sleepy during the day. 2. More serious symptoms are along the lines of having problems at work and school, being moody or even having impulsive and aggressive behavior; it can also cause people to have accidents or errors (The American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2015). Transition: Now that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve told you about the types of insomnia and the symptoms I am going to tell you about some of the different causes. II. First, I am going to tell you about the causes of the acute insomnia then I am going to tell you about the causes of chronic insomnia. A. According to the 2016 Mayo Clinic the article Insomnia from their website mayoclinic.org causes for acute or short-term insomnia are mostly related to the lifestyle people live. 1. It could be caused completely by things people are doing to themselves such as, drinking alcohol, consuming caffeinated foods and beverages, nicotine, eating heavy meals close to bed time, or having poor bedtime routines like watching TV in bed, or playing on phones. 2. It can also be cause by things that we have a little less control over such as life stressors and work or school schedules. (Mayo Clinic, 2016) B. TheShow MoreRelatedStress topic outline1033 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesINFORMATIVE SPEECH OUTLINE Hunter Schauer Due: April 12, 2013 Informative Outline Topic: Stress General Purpose: To Inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience different types of stress and the different ways people cope with it. Thesis: From work stress to the stress of grieving there are different types of stress and different ways to cope with it. I. Introduction : Have you ever wanted to pull your hair out or just yell at someone because you haveRead MoreSleep Deprivation Essay883 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFormal Informative Outline Sleeping Deprivation General Purpose: To inform. Specific purpose: Sleep is a precious gift that allows people to rest. Not getting enough rest on a constant basis can lead to greater problems, even death Organizational Pattern: Introduction I. Blame It On the Light Bulb.Ã Ã College students and individuals around the world are suffering from a health problem that can be more detrimental to their health than some forms of cancer.Ã Ã What is it?Ã Ã Sleep Deprivation Read MoreDisorganized Schizophrenia and Methodist Unity Point752 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Megan Noll COMM 110 Informative Paper SCHIZOPHRENIA Schizophrenia affects approximately 2.5 million Americans and more than 24 million people worldwide (Janssen). Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that is very difficult to live with. Schizophrenia has strong hereditary component (Smith, Segal). People with schizophrenia hear voices, lose touch with reality, canÃ¢â¬â¢t think clearly, function, see things or hear things that are not really there, and canÃ¢â¬â¢t distinguish what is real and what is unreal(SmithRead MoreInformative Speech-Caffeine Essay755 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhitley Edwards Professor Fox Speech 1010-006 18 Feb. 2013 Informative Speech-Caffeine Outline Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about what caffeine is, the effects of it, and the withdrawal symptoms. Central Idea: Caffeine can be found in many places and comes in many forms. It can major effects on our body and we can experience major withdrawal symptoms. Introduction I. What does coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and a bottle of medications have in commonRead MoreAnxiety Attack816 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesINFORMATIVE SPEECH OUTINE Anxiety Attack Breakdown By Julie Vang Attention Getter: WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve all had nervous breakdown or feel self-conscious on some occasions, like me now while giving this speech. Thesis Statement: The impact of an Anxiety Disorder is very serious. Preview of Main Points: I will tell you more in depth about anxiety disorders, the 6 main types of anxiety disorders and their symptoms and my personal experience with an anxiety disorder. Now I will begin by sharing: Read MoreSleep Deprivation On College Students1125 Words Ã |Ã 5 PageshasnÃ¢â¬â¢t started on yet, I have basketball practice from 8-10pm Monday and Wednesday, my sorority has a formal this week that I need to help coordinate and on top of that I was up till 2 in the morning last night correcting a reference page for an informative speech. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t possibly get all these things done in the time frame I have so what do I sacrifice? I sacrifice my sleep. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã B. Thesis- When the projects, exams, and extra-curricular activities start to pile up on one another it seems as thoughRead MoreInformative Speech on Supplements1142 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesabout the benefits of proper supplements to use when working out, losing weight, and remaining healthy. Main Points I. Supplements to use to remain healthy II. knowing your ingredients III. Dangers of using dietary supplements Type of informative speech: Object Method of organization: Topical Too much of anything is bad for you. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure you have all heard this statement at least once in your lives. This is a very big problem with a lot of people in the world of working out. Incorrect supplementationRead MoreA Study On Friday Nights Essay1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhen describing she got fired at work. She tends to feel down and has low energy to the point she is unable to schedule a job interview. She describes feeling like a failure and believes no one wants to hire her. Also, her speech, thought, and perception process is informative, linear, and goal directed. The client does not demonstrate any delusional thought content, auditory hallucination, and homicidal ideation. However, she does demonstrate suicidal ideation. She has good insight and judgmentRead MoreInformative Speech on Michael Jackson3232 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesInformative Speech Purpose: To inform or educate the audience about a topic of your choice. Time: 4-6 minutes Topic: Choose a topic that interests you and would probably interest your audience (the class). Consider what your audience already knows about this topic and what their attitude about this topic will be. Do not inform us of something we already know tons about. You may not choose something that could be done as a demonstration speech. Requirements: - You must inform the audienceRead MoreOutlining an Informative Speech: Anabolic Steroids1824 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages| Outlining an Informative SpeechAnabolic Steroids in Sports | | | OUTLINE OF SPEECH ATTENTION-GETTING OPENER An athlete is a person who is trained or skilled in exercises, sports, or games requiring physical strength, agility, or stamina. Athletes train and practice year-round to prepare for the competition and challenges. Most high school, college, amateur and professional athletes participate in sports for the opportunity to pit their abilities against those of their peers, and
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Comparison Contrast Essay Living at home and living away from home as students (during the higher education studies) Millions of students are often faced with the question of whether it is better to live at home or to go abroad and hence away from home for the period of their studies. Many would probably intuitively say that leaving home is an effort that is not necessary since the same opportunities for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s study are often given where one lives, thus at the home city or home place. However, there are a number of advantages that can be found about the same decision. To begin with, living at home while studying means being close to family, friends and colleagues one knows, likes, and loves. It is simple, convenient andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In contrast to that, however, living away from home might lead to even better opportunities with only a little bit of more or even no additional effort. For instance, depending on the individual one may establish contacts within the new local environment very soon and thus can manage to find an even better internship than one that could have been found in the local environment. In addition to that, maybe the home environment is simply not appropriate for the targets one aims at. One example for that could be someone studying Ã¢â¬Å"BusinessÃ¢â¬ close to the Silicon Valley, which in itself could be opening better future prospects than studying the same in an unknown small village which is home, simply due to being close to the business hub. Contacts and thus jobs for the time after the studies might develop automatically and by simply linking with other and new people. In addition to decisions relating to friends and family and possible career improvements, the degree to which one can learn new things may also be very relevant. Studying at home can mean that one experiences new things around the own home environment. Sociologists state that the most objective way of experiencing something is to pretend to be a stranger, when looking at the known and familiar. That is to say, one could stay in the home environment and still experience the familiarShow MoreRelatedCultural Comparison - Russia and US Education6674 Words Ã |Ã 27 PagesCultural Comparison of Higher Education in Russia and the United States of America Intercultural Communications August 19th, 2014 Ã¢â¬Å"Inculcation is the gradual coming to know something through mundane processes of training and learningÃ¢â¬ (Chetro-Szivos, J. Lecture 1). Through inculcation we acquire a set of dispositions that mold the body and eventually become second nature to the actor. Paralleling this concept with education systems inRead MoreShock Culture Shock Essay5954 Words Ã |Ã 24 PagesÃ¯ » ¿The Comparison of Culture Shock and Reverse Culture Shock Name: Cai Miaosen Instructor: Li Binbin 1. Introduction In recent years, the people who pursue their overseas studying have doubled in number. The overseas returnees also increase at a fast rate. Many people who have already got the foreign passport or the right of residence of other country gradually return to motherland to work and settle down. But unfortunately many of these people are suffering the varying degrees of culture shockRead MoreEssay on A Horse and Two Goats: Detailed Summary7459 Words Ã |Ã 30 Pageshas just two goats. His usual daily routine is to take the goats to graze two miles from his home, alongside the highway, at the foot of a life-sized clay statue of a horse. Muni never thinks about the statue. It has been there since before he was born and is just part of the landscape, as far as he is concerned. On this particular morning, Muni goes outside and shakes six bean-like fruits, called drumsticks, from the branches of the drumstick tree in his yard. Usually, his wife would boil some drumstickRead MoreEducation response Essay example43180 Words Ã |Ã 173 PagesA progress report by the Independent Reviewer on Social Mobility and Child Poverty October 2012 University Challenge: How Higher Education Can Advance Social Mobility A progress report by the Independent Reviewer on Social Mobility and Child Poverty October 2012 University Challenge: How Higher Education Can Advance Social Mobility Contents Foreword and summary 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 11 Chapter 2 Access all areas 19 Chapter 3 Making the grade Read MoreEssay on Silent Spring - Rachel Carson30092 Words Ã |Ã 121 PagesSilent Spring Rachel Carson Online Information For the online version of BookRags Silent Spring Premium Study Guide, including complete copyright information, please visit: http://www.bookrags.com/studyguide-silentspring/ Copyright Information Ã ©2000-2007 BookRags, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. The following sections of this BookRags Premium Study Guide is offprint from Gales For Students Series: Presenting Analysis, Context, and Criticism on Commonly Studied Works: Introduction, Author BiographyRead MoreFeminine Mystique12173 Words Ã |Ã 49 PagesSupplemental Reading for US History 2 From Rosie to Lucy Questions students must answer in a 500-word (minimum) essay: 1) Describe the post-WWII frustrations felt by women such as Betty Friedan. 2) During the era of Ã¢â¬Å"Rosie the RiveterÃ¢â¬ , what gains did women make in the workforce? How did these women feel about themselves and their contributions? What did society as a whole think? 3) What role did mass media play during the 1950s and 1960s in regard to supporting or undermining theRead MoreThesis, Term Paper, Essay, Research Paper21993 Words Ã |Ã 88 Pagessignificantly high. The SADHS revealed that adolescent pregnancies accounted for a third of all births (Dickson, 2002). In studies conducted in America, differences in incidence of adolescent pregnancy among racial and ethnic groups have also been found (Coley Chase-Lansdale, 1998). Whites tend to have lower birth rates than Hispanics and African Americans. According to a 1995 study conducted in the United States, it was found that per 1,000 births 205 were of 15 to 19 year olds, 39.3 were of whiteRead MoreThe Narrative Research Method9739 Words Ã |Ã 39 PagesRESEARCH METHOD The use of narrative research in IS has been limited although there have been some recent publications (Alvarez amp; Urla, 2002; Davidson, 1997; Dube amp; Robey, 1999, Hirschheim amp; Newman, 1991). Table 2 lists some of these studies. However, the clear understanding of how to conduct, interpret and describe narrative research in the context of information systems does not exist and is being provided in this paper. 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FURTHER READING USEFUL WEBSITES ESSAY QUESTIONS 8 8 8 10 12 13 13 15 15 17 17 18 19 20 22 22 23 23 23 24 25 25 26 Ã¢â" Ã¢â" Ã¢â" Ã¢â" Ã¢â" 8 T HE ORIGI NS , CHARACTER, AND PO L I T I C S O F MO D E R N S O C I A L W E L F A R E S Y S T E MS Introduction There are many, particularly social scienceRead MoreHealthcare Essay18323 Words Ã |Ã 74 PagesUnited States Ã¢â¬Å"WhereÃ¢â¬â¢s the market?Ã¢â¬ 81 26501_CH03_FINAL.indd 81 7/27/11 10:31:29 AM 82 CHAPTER 3 The Evolution of Health Services in the United States Introduction The health care delivery system of the United States evolved quite differently from the systems in Europe. American values and the social, political, and economic antecedents on which the US system is based have led to the formation of a unique system of health care delivery, as described in Chapter 1. This chapter discusses how these
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Mughal Architecture Essay MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE All the early Mughal Rulers except Aurangzeb were great bui1ders. With the coming of the Mughals, Indian architecture was greatly influenced by Persian styles. The Mughals constructed excellent mausoleums, mosques, forts, gardens and cities. The Mughal buildings show a uniform pattern both in structure and character. The main characteristic features of Mughal architecture are the bulbous domes, the slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners, large halls, massive vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation. The few mosques and palaces built by Babar and Humayun are not of much architectural significance Sher Shah of the Sur Dynasty who ruled over the Kingdom of the Mughals after driving Humayun out of Ã the country was not only a great administrator but a lover of art also. He built several forts, tombs and mosques. The monuments of Sher Shah are a continuation of the Lodi style. The mausoleums are octagonal in plan and have verandahs around them, surmounted by huge domes. The verandahs have three smaller domes on each side. Sher Shah built the Purana Quila in Delhi. Started by him, it was completed by Humayun. Built of red and buff sand-stone, it is ornamented with black and white marble and coloured tiles. A beautiful mosque inside the Quila with ornamental arches, decorative panels, geometrical designs and inscriptions is an example of the development of architecture and ornamentation during Sher Shahs reign. Sher Shahs tomb at Sasaram in Bihar built in 1549 is in the centre of a large square tank and rises al 46 metres high. It is a two storey construction on a terraced platform. The upper terrace has pillared domes and the two storeys above have a pillared kiosk at the four corners. The base of the large central dome has thirty two sides. The tomb is decorated with coloured tiles, very few of which remain now. Entrance to the tomb is through a domed structure. Mughal architecture begins with Akbar who showed his passion for building by planning and constructing splendid edifices. During his reign Mughal architecture took on new forms. Akbar made free use of both Hindu and Persian styles. The use of red sandstone inlaid with white marble and painted designs on walls and ceiling are the salient features of Akbars buildings. Akbar constructed umerous forts, towers, palaces, mosques, mausoleums and gateways. A structure of note built during his reign is Humayuns Tomb in Delhi. Humayuns Tomb HumayunÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb was built by his widow Haji Begum in 1565 A. D. in Delhi in 1569A. D. , fourteen years after his death. The mausoleum stands in the centre of a square enclosed garden. The garden is divided and sub-divided into squares, typical of Mughal gardens. The lofty d ouble storeyed structure is built on a huge high platform terrace which has a row of calls with arched openings. The central chamber is octagonal in shape and contains the tomb. Each side of the mausoleum has a large arched alcove in the centre with smaller ones on either side. It has a high marble double dome in the centre and pillared kiosks with cupolas surrounding it. Built of red sandstone with an inlay of black, white and yellow marble it presents an imposing picture. Planned by a Persian architect and constructed by Indian workers, it is a combination of both Persian and Indian styles of architecture. Entrance to the mausoleum is through two double storeyed gateways. Agra Fort A greater part of the fort at Agra was constructed by Akbar starting in 1565 AD and completed it in 1574 A. D. Situated on the bank of the river Jamuna, it is a massive and grand structure. The special feature of this fort is the 2. 5 kms. long and 21 metresÃ high circuitous wall of solid red sand stone. The stones are linked with iron rings so close that not even a hair can pass through. The entrance to the fort is through two gateways. The main entrance known as Delhi Gate was the ceremonial entrance to the fort. The other smaller gateway is called the Hathi Pol or Elephant Gate because of the two huge elephants on either side of the gate and was meant for private use. The Delhi Gate entrance archway is flanked by two double storeyed octagonal bastions crowned by octagonal domed kiosks. A balcony separates the two storeys. The structure above the balcony has arched recesses. The gateway is decorated with beautiful panels of coloured tiles and marble inlay work. The fort is surrounded by a deep moat. The fort formerly contained numerous buildings of red sand stone but these were later demolished in the reign of Shah Jehan who constructed marble pavilions instead. Some of the important buildings inside the fort are the Jahangiri Mahal built for Jahangir and his family, the Moti Masjid, and Mena Bazaars. The Jehangiri Mahal is an impressive structure and has a courtyard surrounded by double-storeyed halls and rooms. The corbel brackets, doorways and the chajja above them are profusely carved. The elaborate architecture of the brackets seems to be an imitation of wood work. The planning and construction of the fort show that Rajput architectural styles were freely adopted. Fatehpur Sikri AkbarÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest architectural achievement was the construction of Fatehpur Sikri, his Capital City near Agra. The construction pf the walled city was started in 1569 A. D. and completed in 1574 A. D. ontained some of the most beautiful buildings Ã¢â¬â both religious and secular which testify to the EmperorÃ¢â¬â¢s aim of achieving social, political and religious integration. The religious edifices worth mentioning are the Jami Masjid and Salim ChistiÃ¢â¬â¢s Tomb. The tomb built in 1571 A. D. in the corner of the mosque compound is a square marble chamber with a verandah. The cenotaph has an exquisitely designed lattice screen around it. The secular ones include Jodh BaiÃ¢â¬â¢s palace, the Panch Mahal, the Diwan-i-khas and the Buland Darwaza. Jodha Bais palace is a large building consisting of rooms on all four sides of a courtyard. Congressional reconstruction- civil war EssayWithin the walled city, the fortress is in the shape of a rectangle 900 metres by 550 metres. The rampart walls are about 34 metres high. A moat surrounds the rampart. Two of the five gateways of the fort are three storeyed structures flanked by octagonal towers. These are the Lahori Gate and the Delhi Gate. Figures of two huge elephants flank the Delhi Gate. The main entrance to the fort is through the Lahori Gate. A covered passage with shops on either side leads to the palaces inside the fort. Barracks for soldiers, audience halls, horse and elephant stables, and ornamental gardens are other features of the fort. Some of the beautiful buildings are the Diwan-i-Am, Diwan-i-Khas, Moti Mahal, Hira Mahal and Rang Mahal, the latter three, all halls decorated with pietro dura and patterns in gold and colour and floors paved with marble slabs. The Moti Masjid was added later in 1654 A. D. and is an excellent specimen of the balance and rhythm maintained in Mughal constructions. The Diwan-i-Am (Hall of Public Audience) is an arched pillared durbar hall. A white marble throne, embellished with coloured inlay work stands under a marble canopy. Below the throne is a marble dais inlaid with semi-precious stones. Behind the throne, the wall has beautiful panels of flowers and birds in coloured inlay work. The Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) is a rectangular central hall with aisles of arches and painted pillars. The four corners of the roof have pillars with chhatris on them. The walls have the famous verses of Amir Khusro which says that Ã¢â¬Å"If there is paradise on earth it is hereÃ¢â¬ Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal in Agra, a dream in white marble was built by Shah Jehan as a memorial to his beloved wife Mumtaz Begum. Built on the banks of the river Jumna, it was started in 1632 A. D. and took 22 years to complete. Marble from Makrana and precious stones from different parts of the world were used in its construction. Planned by Isa, a Persian architect it is a masterpiece of architecture. The Taj is situated in the centre of a high marble terrace. A marble minaret of four storeys stands on each of the four corners of the terrace. The minarets are crowned with domes. The main structure is a square. A huge, vaulted recess with smaller arched recesses in two storeys on either sideÃ make up the facade of the building on all sides. An octagonal hall with an exquisite perforated marble screen contains the cenotaphs of Mumtaz and Shah Jehan. The vaulted ceiling is crowned in the centre by a large bulbous dome which tapers off into a foliated crest. Around the dome are four cupolas. The surface of the walls Ã¢â¬â exterior and interior and the cenotaphs are beautifully decorated with pietra dura, floral and geometrical designs. Borders of inscriptions decorate the main archways. A Mosque on the west and a corresponding structure on the east in red sand-stone complete the effect of symmetry. Situated in a large enclosed rectangular garden with fountains, ornamental pools and water-courses, entrance to the Taj is by a majestic gateway. Bibi Ka Maqbara Aurangzeb being a puritan did not encourage art in any form. Architecture and fine Arts declined during his reign never to come up again during Mughal rule. One of the very few buildings of this period worth mentioning is the mausoleum of his wife, Rabia-Ud-Daurani erected in 1679 A. D. in Aurangabad (Deccan) by her son. A poor replica of the Taj Mahal and half its size, it shows the extent to which art had declined. Its noteworthy features are the latticed octagonal white marble screen, which encloses the tombs and the beaten brass doors with floral panels and borders. Sikh Temples In 1579, Guru Ramdas, the fourth Guru of the Sikhs founded the city of Amritsar in the Punjab. He first constructed a pool and named it Amrit Sar or Pool of Nectar on a stretch of land gifted to him by Akbar. His successor, Guru Arjun Dev built a temple in the middle of the pool to enshrine the Guru Granth Sahib, the sacred book of the Sikhs. In 1803, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Ruler of Punjab improved the temple. The lower half of the temple was covered with marble and the upper half with copper over which a pure gold leaf of 400 Kgs was covered. Since then this Ã¢â¬ËHari MandirÃ¢â¬â¢ is called the Ã¢â¬ËGolden TempleÃ¢â¬â¢. It has four entrances in the four cardinal directions. A marble causeway across the water connects the entrance gateway to the main shrine. Floral patterns of coloured semi-precious stone inlay work , glass work and beautiful fresco paintings decorate the inner walls and ceiling of the temple. The architecture is a combination of Hindu and Muslim styles and lays stress on calmness and serenity. A marble paved square construction adjacent to the Golden Temple is the Akal Takht or Immortal Throne Ã¢â¬â the seat of Sikh religion. The weapons used by the Sikh Gurus are also kept here. The temple with its beautiful domes throwing its reflection in the pool is a piece of grace and beauty. Other important places of worship in Punjab for the Sikhs are the Gurudwara at Taran Taran Sahib designed in Mughal style, the Fatehgarh Sahib at Sirhind where the young sons of Guru Gobind Singh were buried alive by Aurangjeb and the Gurudwara at Anandpur sahib where Guru Gobind Singh initiated the Khalsa.